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Farm Radio Weekly is a news and information service for rural radio broadcasters in sub-Saharan Africa. It is published by Farm Radio International.

Notes to Broadcasters

Notes to broadcasters: Women and land rights

To read the full article on which this week’s story was based, Widows in Tanzania struggle with property grabbing by relatives, please go to: http://www.trust.org/item/20140120013155-tgyhs/?source=hptop

Women’s access to land, property and natural resources is a basic human right. Around the world, women do the majority of work on farms and in the home. Being able to own land, property and livestock is closely linked with daily survival. In the event of divorce or widowhood, women should not face the prospect of being disinherited.

The vast majority of women in Africa cannot afford to buy land. While land is valued for its capacity to produce food and support domestic animals, it is also a symbol of social status, power, and identity. In many countries, women’s relationship with land is directly linked to their relationship with men. They are viewed as dependent mothers, wives or daughters. Therefore, a woman who attempts to stake a formal land claim risks alienating male relatives. This can undermine her position in her family and community. When widows and divorcees are not in possession of a legal deed of ownership, they can find themselves in a precarious state.

The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights includes statements regarding the status of women in society:

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 12: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with… privacy, family home … everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 17: (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others; (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of … property.

Here are some Farm Radio Weekly stories that look at different aspects of women’s access to land:

Burkina Faso: Rural women owning land for the first time (FRW #275, January 2014) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2014/01/20/burkina-faso-rural-women-owning-land-for-the-first-time-by-inoussa-maiga-for-farm-radio-weekly/

Tanzania: Maasai women gain access to land (FRW 133, November 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/01/tanzania-maasai-women-gain-access-to-land-by-john-cheburet-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/

Zimbabwe: Women struggle to get title to resettled land (FRW 136, November 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/22/zimbabwe-women-struggle-to-get-title-to-resettled-land-by-rachel-awuor-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/

Rwanda: Rwanda Women’s Network brings hope to rural women (FRW 135, November 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/15/rwanda-rwanda-women%E2%80%99s-network-brings-hope-to-rural-women-by-pius-sawa-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/

Swaziland: Landmark ruling gives Swazi women property rights (FRW 103, March 2010)  http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/03/15/1-swaziland-landmark-ruling-gives-swazi-women-property-rights-ips-irin/

Women’s right to land is necessary for community development (FRW 139, December 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/12/20/women%E2%80%99s-right-to-land-is-necessary-for-community-development/

Here are two scripts which also look at women’s right to land:

Land Ownership Rights: Access Denied: Why Women Need Access to Land (Package 57, Script 9, October 2000) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-57-women-are-key-to-rural-development/land-ownership-rights-access-denied-why-women-need-equal-access-to-land/

Women, Property and Inheritance (Package 73, Script 4, January 2005) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-73-hivaids-and-food-security/women-property-and-inheritance/

You may wish to produce a call-in or text-in show and ask callers the following questions regarding women’s land rights:

-Is it common for women to own land in your community or region? Do you know women who have been denied land ownership or access to land?

-Are land laws widely understood? Where can women find up-to-date information about land law? How do customary laws and practice differ from national law? How do these differences affect women?

-What can women do if they are at risk of losing access to land? Where can they turn for help, legal advice or financial support?

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Notes to broadcasters: Effects of conflict on farmers and other rural people

The articles on which this News brief was based can be found on the Internet. They are: Central African Republic MPs elect Catherine Samba-Panza (BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-25811250 and Centrafrique: Une crise alimentaire majeure se profile (AllAfrica: http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201401202219.html)

A Special Session of the UN Human Rights Council was called as the Central African Republic continues to suffer a humanitarian and political crisis. For an audio excerpt on the situation in the country, visit the United Nations’ Radio site: http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2014/01/human-rights-discussed-as-genocide-threat-hangs-over-central-african-republic/

For decades, agricultural researchers have struggled to find ways to improve crop production and food security for small-scale farmers, especially in Africa where drought and famine complicate the difficulties.  When drought is coupled with political instability, a bad situation only gets worse. Violence and war disrupt production, marketing and transportation. They are generally very bad news for farmers.

Farm Radio Weekly has covered the consequences of conflict in Civil war landmines threaten returning farmers (FRW #14, March 2008), which explores the issues around refugees and landmines: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2008/03/10/democratic-republic-of-the-congo-civil-war-landmines-threaten-returning-farmers-by-sylvie-bora-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-bukavu-democratic-republic-of-the-congo/

Former diamond miners seek new treasures from the earth, a story from March, 2009, shows how farmers, forced off their land by armed rebels in search of diamonds, have returned to farming. You can read that here: (FRW #60: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/03/30/1-sierra-leone-former-diamond-miners-seek-new-treasures-from-the-earth-un-integrated-regional-information-networks/)

After the war comes the rebuilding. Midwife puts women’s rights at the heart of her hospital (FRW #271, December 2013: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/12/09/somaliland-midwife-puts-womens-rights-at-the-heart-of-her-hospital-trust/) highlights how one woman built a hospital and trained medical professionals who make a real difference to their communities in Somaliland.

One of the first casualties of war is the truth. Unfortunately, women are also among the first casualties. FRW has produced Notes to broadcasters on the Elimination of Violence Against Women http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/11/25/notes-to-broadcasters-international-day-for-the-elimination-of-violence-against-women/ (FRW #269, November 2013).

Journalists who cover news in trouble spots are also at risk. The Committee to Protect Journalists has released a Journalist Security Guide aimed at helping journalists evaluate and prevent risks. http://cpj.org/reports/2012/04/journalist-security-guide.php

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Notes to broadcasters on women and land rights

Women’s access to land, property and natural resources is central to realizing their economic rights and well-being. Globally, women form the majority of subsistence farmers, and play a critical role in household food security and small-scale agricultural production. Land tenure is closely linked with daily survival. Land is a productive asset to fall back on in times of crisis. In the event of divorce or widowhood, land is also a form of security, especially in the absence of measures for social protection. Control over land is a very delicate and volatile issue. In many countries, land disputes are the largest source of conflict at the household and community level.

The vast majority of women in Africa cannot afford to purchase land. While land is valued primarily as an economic resource, it is also a symbol of social status, power, and identity. In many countries, women’s relationship with land is directly linked to their relationship with men. They are viewed as dependent mothers, wives or daughters. In this context, a woman who pursues a land claim risks alienating male relatives. This can undermine her social support system. A lack of formal land entitlement can leave widows and divorcees in a precarious position. In many communities, women are not permitted to farm land owned by her husband’s family.

The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights includes statements regarding the status of women in society:

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 12: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with h[er] … home … everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 17: (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others; and (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of … property.

Here are some Farm Radio Weekly stories that look at different aspects of women’s access to land:

Tanzania: Maasai women gain access to land (FRW 133, November 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/01/tanzania-maasai-women-gain-access-to-land-by-john-cheburet-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/

Zimbabwe: Women struggle to get title to resettled land (FRW 136, November 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/22/zimbabwe-women-struggle-to-get-title-to-resettled-land-by-rachel-awuor-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/

Rwanda: Rwanda Women’s Network brings hope to rural women (FRW 135, November 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/15/rwanda-rwanda-women%E2%80%99s-network-brings-hope-to-rural-women-by-pius-sawa-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/

Swaziland: Landmark ruling gives Swazi women property rights (FRW 103, March 2010)  http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/03/15/1-swaziland-landmark-ruling-gives-swazi-women-property-rights-ips-irin/

Women’s right to land is necessary for community development (FRW 139, December 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/12/20/women%E2%80%99s-right-to-land-is-necessary-for-community-development/

Here are two scripts which also look at women’s right to land:

Land Ownership Rights: Access Denied: Why Women Need Access to Land (Package 57, Script 9, October 2000) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-57-women-are-key-to-rural-development/land-ownership-rights-access-denied-why-women-need-equal-access-to-land/

Women, Property and Inheritance (Package 73, Script 4, January 2005) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-73-hivaids-and-food-security/women-property-and-inheritance/

You may wish to produce a call-in or text-in show and ask callers the following questions regarding women’s land rights:

-Is it common for women to own land in your community or region? Do you know women who have been denied land ownership or access to land?

-Are land laws widely understood? Where can women find up-to-date information about land law? How do customary laws and practice differ from national law? How do these differences affect women?

-What can women do if they are at risk of losing access to land? Where can they turn for help, legal advice or financial support?

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Notes to broadcasters: Youth, ICTs and social media in agriculture

A recent News in brief story on Mkulima Young encouraged Farm Radio Weekly to follow up on their work, and bring you this story of how those who have engaged with the social media platform have found success. You can read that News in brief item here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/11/18/frw-news-in-brief-15/.

Notes to broadcasters on ICTs in African agriculture was published in September 2013 (FRW #262, http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/09/30/notes-to-broadcasters-icts-in-african-agriculture/).

In August 2012, FRW published Notes to broadcasters on youth and farming as a business (Issue #214: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/08/27/notes-to-broadcasters-on-youth-and-farming-as-a-business/) and Notes to broadcasters on agricultural co-operatives and youth (Issue #212: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/08/13/notes-to-broadcasters-on-agricultural-co-operatives-and-youth/.)

Here are some recent stories from FRW on African youth in agriculture:

Older farmer forges partnership with youth to grow profits (Issue #244, April 2013: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/04/29/comoros-older-farmer-forges-partnership-with-youth-to-grow-profits-by-ahmed-bacar-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-comoros/)

Youth abandon mining to grow cassava (Issue #233, January 2013: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/01/28/tanzania-youth-abandon-mining-to-grow-cassava-by-susuma-susuma-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-tanzania/)

Young woman farmer on road to success (Issue #214, August 2012: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/08/27/kenya-young-woman-farmer-on-road-to-success-by-sawa-pius-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kenya/)

Agricultural co-operative encourages youth to stay in village (Issue #212, August 2012: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/08/13/senegal-agricultural-co-operative-encourages-youth-to-stay-in-village-ips/)

How are young people involved in agriculture in your listening area? Are they movers and shakers at local farms and markets? Do they have issues with the financial aspects of buying or renting land to farm? Do young people think it is time for older generations to pass on family farms and herds? Are the youngest children minding the cows and goats rather than attending school? What is the future of farming in your community?

Gather together elders and youth, extensionists and teachers, and local politicians to debate these issues, and broadcast their opinions live or as a recorded show. Many people will want to voice their opinions on a phone-in, and you are guaranteed a lively debate. Whatever you do, remember to highlight the voices of young farmers and young businesspeople.

Don’t forget that Farm Radio International has its own social media platform, Barza.fm, dedicated to broadcasters, journalists and others interested in farming and broadcasting. Visit www.barza.fm and join the ongoing discussions and training sessions! Not registered yet? It’s free and easy!

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Notes to broadcasters: Row planting

Seeding in rows allows individual plants more space to grow, reduces competition for water and nutrients, and makes weeding and harvesting easier. The enhanced airflow in the field reduces fungal disease and the resulting losses of yield.

The TECA webpage (Technologies and practices for small agricultural producers) − part of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization website – has information about planting in rows, including some advantages and disadvantages. “Labour saving technologies and practices: Row planting, hand seeders and planters” is available at: http://teca.fao.org/read/7301. There are also links to other techniques, including conservation agriculture, integrated pest management and improved uses of hand tools. You can download a PDF file by visiting this address: http://teca.fao.org/sites/default/files/technology_files/Row%20planting%2C%20hand%20seeders%20and%20planters.pdf

One advantage of planting in rows is that intercropping, where two or more different crops are planted together, is more easily managed. For more information on intercropping, visit: http://www.allindiary.org/pool/resources/intercropping.pdf, or read FRW’s Notes to broadcasters on intercropping at: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/01/31/notes-to-broadcasters-on-intercropping-as-a-supplement-to-fertilizer/ (issue #143, January 2011).

Planting in rows is a simple technique which, after the initial hard work of planting, makes life easier for farmers. Do farmers in your area plant their crops in rows? Which crops do they find easiest to plant in rows? Do they practice intercropping? If they are still using the broadcast method, why do they prefer it?

Visit farmers in their fields and interview them about their preferred practices. Invite an agricultural extension worker to your farming program to discuss with farmers, either in the studio or by telephone and SMS, the best methods of planting different crops. Everyone will have an opinion, which makes for entertaining listening.

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Notes to broadcasters: Nutrition

Many foods contain proteins which, along with carbohydrates and fats, vitamins and minerals, are the main building blocks in the diet of humans and other animals. Although the body can create some nutrients itself, we depend on the foods we eat for our essential nutrients, and to avoid malnutrition.

Malnutrition is defined as the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. The term is commonly used to refer to people who do not have enough to eat, or are undernourished. But those who are over-nourished, or overweight, can also be malnourished if they do not consume enough essential vitamins and minerals. This can be caused by a lack of variety in the diet. Infants, young children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women need larger quantities of some nutrients. They are therefore more susceptible to malnutrition. So avoiding malnutrition is not only about eating more, it is about eating better. In many cases, “better” means a more varied diet.

Maize is the third most important cereal crop for direct consumption in the world (after rice and wheat), and is one of the most popular staple crops in many african countries. Quality protein maize, or QPM, is a traditionally-bred maize with higher levels of protein. QPM has been proven to reduce stunted growth and malnutrition in children. Farm Radio International works on projects which contribute to the adoption of QPM in Uganda and Ethiopia, collaborating with radio stations to develop programs in maize-growing regions on nutrition, the benefits of a diversified diet, and the possibility of growing QPM. You can read more about the project in Ethiopia here: http://www.farmradio.org/portfolio/nutritious-maize-for-ethiopian-children-2/

Here are some recent Farm Radio Weekly stories related to nutrition:

From September 2013 comes More food means more girls in school (FRW #261), which can be read here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/09/23/mali-more-food-means-more-girls-in-school-allafrica/

Zimbabwe: Women grow better lives near the city (FRW 168, August 2011) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/08/15/zimbabwe-women-grow-better-lives-near-the-city-by-zenzele-ndebele-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-zimbabwe/

Mali: Traditional healers join fight against malnutrition (FRW 165, July 2011) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/07/25/mali-traditional-healers-join-fight-against-malnutrition-irin/

Two publications might be of interest to those who want to research this subject further. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Bioversity International have produced a book, Sustainable Diets and Biodiversity. The book is available to download through this address: http://www.fao.org/food/sustainable-diets-and-biodiversity/en/ (find the link at the bottom of the page). The second publication is a joint production of FAO and the World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases (WHO, 2003) can be downloaded via this address: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/ac911e/ac911e00.pdf

For more information about malnutrition, please visit these sites:

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/malnutrition/en/

http://www.wfp.org/hunger/malnutrition

http://www.who.int/topics/nutrition/en/

The website of the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) also provides useful background information: http://www.gainhealth.org/about-malnutrition

GAIN is a member of a partnership called Thousand Days, which promotes investment in improved nutrition for mothers and children in the 1,000 day period from pregnancy to age two. According to the GAIN website, better nutrition during this period can have a life-changing impact on a child: http://www.thousanddays.org/

In FRRP #65 (October 2002), Farm Radio International produced scripts on food and nutrition. You can view these scripts here: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-65-food-and-nutrition-education/. You can browse the rest of the FRI script archive here: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/

Poor nutrition and hunger are all too common in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas. You might wish to produce a program that covers the basic facts of nutrition and malnutrition, how to recognize and treat symptoms of malnutrition, or how to prevent malnutrition and promote good nutrition. As well as presenting facts, ask women and men farmers what they understand by malnutrition, and try to identify and clarify any misconceptions. Why not interview health experts, or NGO workers that work on nutrition and health? You could also explore the links between agriculture and nutrition, such as growing fruits and vegetables to diversify diets. It is a huge topic, so be creative!

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Notes to broadcasters: Land ownership

The article on which this story was based can be read in full at this address: http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/12/bringing-cameroons-marginalised-poverty-debate/

Land tenure and access to good quality land are key issues for small-scale farmers. Many countries have complicated and unclear laws regarding the sale and purchase of land. This is especially true where families have inhabited land for centuries but have no paperwork to prove ownership.

When land is divided up through inheritance, children and spouses are often left with small plots. Often their lands are dispersed over a wide area. Those who inherit this land may prefer to sell it and emigrate to urban areas. This is especially true when their land is marginal and has poor soil.

Farm Radio Weekly published a series in 2009 on international land grabbing and investment. Issue #69 was the first in the series. It is a good place to start for more background on international land issues: http://weekly.farmradio.org/topic/frw-issues/issue-69/.

In 2010, FRW looked at women’s land rights. Here are the Notes to Broadcasters for that topic from March 2010: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/03/15/notes-to-broadcasters-on-women%E2%80%99s-land-rights-3/.

And here is a Farm Radio International script that looks at women’s land rights: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-57-women-are-key-to-rural-development/land-ownership-rights-access-denied-why-women-need-equal-access-to-land/.

Notes to broadcasters on land tenure are available from FRW #201 (May 2012 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/05/21/notes-to-broadcasters-on-land-tenure/), and Notes to broadcasters on women and land ownership are available here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/06/11/notes-to-broadcasters-on-women-and-land-ownership/ (#204, June 2012).

One Farm Radio Weekly story from 2012 describes how land pressures have led farmers to grow crops in unusual places. Read Lack of land drives residents to grow food in cemetery to hear about one farmer who found life in an old cemetery near the city of Pointe-Noire, Congo-Brazzaville (FRW #190, February 2012 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/02/27/congo-brazzaville-lack-of-land-drives-residents-to-grow-food-in-cemetery-by-john-ndinga-ngoma-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-congo-brazzaville/).

Why not examine the issues surrounding land tenure in your listening area. Issues to explore include:
-Is it easy to purchase agricultural land? Does formal law take customary practices (such as inheritance) into account?
-Do laws apply equally or equitably to men and women? To what extent are women allowed to own land outright?

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Notes to broadcasters: ‘Forgotten’ crops

The article on which this story was based can be read in full here: http://www.trust.org/item/20131216143809-uh7dk?utm

Neglected and underused crops are domesticated plant species that have been used for centuries for their food, fibre, fodder, oil or medicinal properties. However, over time, they have fallen from favour for one or more reasons. These might include poor shelf life, unrecognized nutritional value, poor consumer awareness and “reputational problems” (being viewed as “famine food” or “poor people’s food.”) Now, they are often regarded as “lost” or “orphaned” crops. For more information on the subject, please visit the Collaborative Crop Research Program website at: http://mcknight.ccrp.cornell.edu/projects/neglected.html

The 3rd International Conference on Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS): For a Food-Secure Africa took place in Accra, Ghana, in September 2013. Read more about the findings on their website, through this link: http://nus2013.org/

The National Academy Press has published three volumes on “lost” African crops, all of which are available online and for download. Volume I (Grains) is available at: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309049903. Volume II (Vegetables) is available here:   http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11763. Volume III (Fruits) is available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11879&page=R1.

Farm Radio Weekly has published several stories on this subject. You might like to read through this selection of stories, and create a series of programs on your station:

Hit hard by changing climate, farmers choose traditional crop varieties (#261, September 2013 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/09/23/zimbabwe-hit-hard-by-changing-climate-farmers-choose-traditional-crop-varieties-trust/)

Traditional seeds help Sekhukhune District fight hunger (#146, February 2011 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/02/28/south-africa-traditional-seeds-help-sekhukhune-district-fight-hunger-by-fidelis-zvomuya-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-south-africa/)

Re-discovery of traditional crops helps farmers cope with climate change (#87, November 2009 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/11/09/3-africa-re-discovery-of-traditional-crops-helps-farmers-cope-with-climate-change-farm-radio-weekly/)

The “rediscovery” of forgotten, or orphaned, crops, is in part connected with the changing climate. Please read FRW’s recent Notes to broadcasters on climate change (#265, October 2013 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/10/28/notes-to-broadcasters-climate-change/) for more information on that subject.

There are several FRI scripts on this topic, including:

African traditional vegetables back on the table (Pack 95, Item 14, December 2012), available at http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-95-researching-and-producing-farmer-focused-programs/african-traditional-vegetables-back-on-the-table/.

You might consider hosting a call-in or text-in show that gets people talking about traditional crops that are grown and enjoyed in your area:

-Which traditional crops are grown in your area? Is the variety or quantity of traditional crops grown greater or less than it was a few decades ago?
-Are there traditional crops that were grown by earlier generations, but are no longer grown? Are there wild crops that were used in the past, but not now?
-Where do these traditional crops grow (e.g., in small family gardens, on commercial farms, in the wild)? How difficult is it to produce these traditional crops as opposed to other crops?
-How do the traditional crops vary in taste or use from other crops? Do people in your listening audience know how they differ in terms of nutritional value?
-What is the difference in price between traditional and other crops in local markets? What is the difference between farmers’ profit margins for traditional crops and other crops?

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Notes to broadcasters: Non-timber forest products and vegetative propagation

Farm Radio Weekly recently produced another story on okok. “Cameroon: Women earn income from forest foods without deforestation” (issue # 240, March 2013) is available through the FRW website at this address: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/03/24/cameroon-women-earn-income-from-forest-foods-without-deforestation-alertnet/

It has accompanying Notes to broadcasters, which you can read here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/03/24/notes-to-broadcasters-non-timber-forest-products-ntfp/

In this week’s story, the farmer has been taught how to propagate (meaning “reproduce” or simply “grow”) okok vines vegetatively. Vegetative propagation uses cuttings of plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves, to produce new “seedlings” which are almost identical to the parent plants from which they came. This method of growing plants allows a farmer to establish a crop without growing plants from seed. It is appropriate for some but not all crops. Vegetative propagation is often quicker than planting seeds. Growers can be confident that they will produce plants with the same growth rate, disease resistance, yield and other characteristics which the parent plants displayed. For more information on vegetative propagation, go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetative_reproduction

Successful propagation from stem cuttings requires the cuttings to be in an environment with high humidity. If planting only a few cuttings, you can use a plastic bag or gunny sack filled with soil. You can maintain high humidity by covering the bag or sack with clear plastic, which keeps in the water and allows light to reach the cuttings. The cuttings should not touch the plastic cover, as they can be damaged by the condensation that will form on the inside of the plastic. For larger planting areas, such as an old wooden box, the plastic can be kept away from the cuttings with wire or wood. It is important to remember to make drainage holes in the bags or boxes containing the soil. Moisture must be able to drain through the soil, or the development of the cuttings’ roots may be impaired.

An easy-to-follow video is available on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3O7icCqFfEo

An FAO guide to vegetative propagation is available through this link: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad224e/AD224E00.htm#TOC

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Notes to broadcasters: Soil restoration

Soil fertility, or lack of fertility, is an issue for all farmers. Much of a farmer’s effort is devoted to ensuring the soil has the nutrients it needs to produce crops through both traditional methods – such as mulching and fallowing – and newer methods such as applying chemical fertilizer.

The story from Niger features women taking part in land restoration schemes. For more information about land restoration, follow this link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_restoration

The story also mentions “half-moon ditches.” Read more about them in this Radio Resource Pack (#42, Script 6, October 1996): http://www.farmradio.org/archived-radio-scripts/?rscript=42-8script_en

Farm Radio Weekly has covered this subject before. “Farmers restore soil fertility to boost yields” (Issue #217, September 2012) can be found here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/09/17/farmers-restore-soil-fertility-to-boost-yields-by-johanna-absalom-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-namibia/

An age-old practice to improve soil fertility is crop rotation, which often involves a fallow period designed to allow soils to recover naturally. You can read more about it here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_rotation

Agricultural practices that improve soil fertility can help farmers address other common problems. For example, mulching (spreading organic matter on the soil around plants) helps with water management by decreasing evaporation of moisture from the soil. And intercropping legumes (plants which take nitrogen from the atmosphere and add it to the soil) can help keep invasive weeds out of the field, while providing an additional crop.

Farm Radio International explored many aspects of soil health in a Resource Pack published in July 2010: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-91-soil-health/ (see scripts 91.1-91.9)

You may wish to host a call-in show inviting farmers to discuss methods they find most effective in boosting soil fertility.

-What materials (such as manure, crop residues, or chemical fertilizers) do they add to the soil on a regular basis to maintain or improve soil fertility?

-Can they describe any application techniques (for example, preparing compost from available materials, or microdosing chemical fertilizer) that they find particularly effective?

-What other methods (such as rotating crops, intercropping, or growing crops like Tithonia a plant with leaves that increase soil fertility when incorporated into the soil or made into compost) have local farmers found helpful in improving or maintaining soil fertility?

-For each technique, what is the cost in terms of time and money, and what is the payoff in terms of increased production and value of crops produced?

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Notes to broadcasters: Cooperation and older farmers

“United we stand, divided we fall.” By getting together, people can wield greater power, and more opportunities will arise. In this article, several issues are raised. As broadcasters, you have an opportunity to explore any or all of them. For a basic introduction to farmers’ co-operatives, visithttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_cooperative

You can also revisit a recent Notes to broadcasters on co-operatives: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/06/11/notes-to-broadcasters-on-co-operatives-3/

For World Food Day on October 16, 2012, the United Nations highlighted the role that agricultural co-operatives can play in strengthening farmers’ hands. A short sound bite is available at http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2012/10/world-food-day-highlights-role-of-agricultural-cooperatives-in-fighting-hunger/

A report from Ethiopia states that agricultural co-operatives support small-scale farmers and marginalized groups such as young people and women by pooling their resources: http://allafrica.com/stories/201210190202.html

Co-operatives have also proven to be an effective vehicle for social inclusion, promoting gender equality and encouraging the involvement of youth in agriculture: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?Cr=hunger&Cr1=&NewsID=43299#.UIU_74aLiSo

On this same topic, see this script from our script package 93, December 2011:

http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-94-african-farm-radio-research-initiative-afrri/gender-mainstreaming-in-farmers-co-operative-groups-in-ghana-achieve-food-security-for-small-scale-farmers/

Small-scale farmers typically have poor access to markets, a lack of bargaining power, and a lack of access to financial services. Agricultural co-operatives can help small-scale farmers overcome these constraints: http://www.netnewspublisher.com/agricultural-cooperatives-could-expand-and-make-an-even-greater-contribution-against-poverty-and-hunger/

This script focuses on the potential benefits of agricultural co-ops. It can be found at http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/01/10/%E2%80%98together-we-stand%E2%80%99-agricultural-co-operative-society/

Script package 94 contains eight scripts and an issue pack on co-operatives. The issue pack gives examples of co-operatives, background information on co-operatives, production ideas for programming on co-operatives, and further resources on co-operatives – organizations, audio files, print documents, and a video. You can find package 94 at http://www.farmradio.org/english/radio-scripts/

For earlier scripts on co-operatives, go to:  http://www.farmradio.org/script-categories/cooperatives/

A recent story about an elderly South African farmer who continues to profit by carefully choosing suitable crops was featured in FRW issue #240. Read it here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/03/24/south-africa-age-no-challenge-to-productive-woman-by-thuso-khumalo-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-south-africa/ The accompanying Notes to broadcasters can be found here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/03/24/notes-to-broadcasters-older-farmers-and-their-farming-choices/

Do farmers in your area work together to obtain better market prices for their products, or purchase inputs as a co-operative? You may wish to find a farmers’ group and prepare a news story or arrange an on-air interview which profiles the group and their efforts.

-Who are the members of this group? Are they grouped by area, the type of crop they produce, etc.?

-Is there a mixture of young and old farmers? How do they get along? Who owns the resources? Is there a conflict between “age and experience” and “youth and energy”? If so, how are these issues dealt with?

-When did they come together? What were individual farmers’ experiences with processing and selling their crop prior to forming the group?

-Ask the members to describe in detail the procedures they use to process their goods, identify markets for their crops, gather them together, and sell them. Did they try other methods before determining that one method worked best?

-How much extra income do farmers earn as a result of group marketing, group processing, or group purchase of inputs? What are the other benefits of working together as a group (saving time, learning from each other, etc.)?

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Notes to broadcasters: Rainwater harvesting

Interest in rainwater harvesting has increased in recent decades, as farmers face increasingly erratic weather patterns. Collecting rainwater for domestic use can be affordable and easy to set up in most households. Notes to broadcasters on this subject from Farm Radio Weekly issue #141 (January 2011) are available through this link: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/01/17/notes-to-broadcasters-on-rainwater-harvesting-2/

More information is available from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainwater_harvesting

The International Rainwater Harvesting Alliance was created in Geneva in November 2002. You can visit their website through this address: http://www.irha-h2o.org/

There is a wealth of information and lists of further resources on water harvesting in this Farm Radio International issue pack:
Water harvesting: an issue pack (Package 89, Script 3, December 2009) http://www.farmradio.org/english/radio-scripts/89-3script_en.asp

Farm Radio Weekly has published some stories on water harvesting, including:

-Sahel: Fighting malnutrition with local food security and water management initiatives (FRW #122, August 2010) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/08/02/sahel-fighting-malnutrition-with-local-food-security-and-water-management-initiatives-irin-rfi-reuters-bbc-icrisat/

Zimbabwe: Collecting rainfall in the city (FRW #141, January 2011) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/01/17/zimbabwe-collecting-rainfall-in-the-city-ips/

-Kenya: Rainwater harvesting improves rural livelihoods (FRW #15, March 2008)   http://weekly.farmradio.org/2008/03/17/1-kenya-rainwater-harvesting-improves-rural-livelihoods-various-sources/.

If you want to create programs on water harvesting, you could talk to progressive farmers, older traditional farmers, organic farmers, NGOs with an interest in water or in adapting to climate change, and governments or companies with an interest in water.

Find out whether any farmers harvest rainwater or surface water in your listening area.

-What methods do they use? Are these methods effective when there is an extended period of low rainfall?

-Do farmers make collective efforts to harvest rainwater? Has the government or have NGOs helped these efforts? What are the results of efforts to harvest rainwater or surface water?

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Notes to broadcasters: Nutrition

The women featured in our story from Burkina Faso are learning to augment their diets with foods they can grow at home at little or no cost. The benefits they gain from eating a more balanced diet are also passed on to their infants in the form of breast milk.

Malnutrition is defined as the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. The term is commonly used to refer to children and adults who do not have enough to eat, or are undernourished. But people who are over-nourished, or overweight, can also be malnourished if they do not consume enough essential vitamins and minerals. This can be caused by a lack of variety in the diet. Infants, young children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women need larger quantities of some nutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamins A, C and D. They are therefore more susceptible to malnutrition. So avoiding malnutrition is not just about eating more, it is about eating better. In many cases, “better” means a more varied diet.

For more facts and information about malnutrition, please visit these sites:

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/malnutrition/en/

http://www.wfp.org/hunger/malnutrition

http://www.who.int/topics/nutrition/en/

The website of the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) also provides useful background information: http://www.gainhealth.org/about-malnutrition

GAIN is part of a partnership called Thousand Days, which promotes investment in improved nutrition for mothers and children in the 1,000 day period from pregnancy to age two. According to the GAIN website, better nutrition during this period can have a life-changing impact on a child: http://www.thousanddays.org/

Read more about the World Food Programme’s activities in DR Congo here: http://www.wfp.org/countries/Congo–Democratic-Republic-Of/Operations

Farm Radio International has produced many scripts on health and nutrition. Browse our archive here: http://farmradio.org/english/radio-scripts/health.asp

Here are some stories from Farm Radio Weekly related to nutrition:

Zimbabwe: Women grow better lives near the city (FRW 168, August 2011) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/08/15/zimbabwe-women-grow-better-lives-near-the-city-by-zenzele-ndebele-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-zimbabwe/

Mali: Traditional healers join fight against malnutrition (FRW 165, July 2011) http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/07/25/mali-traditional-healers-join-fight-against-malnutrition-irin/

As part of the United States Agency for International Development’s Infant and Young Child Nutrition Project, the Zambia Ministry of Health and partners developed a 13-part radio series called “Bushes That Grow Are the Future Forest.” The aim of the series was to improve infant and young child nutrition practices. Follow this link to find more information and links to scripts and radio spots: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/02/27/radio-series-on-infant-nutrition-in-zambia/

Farm Radio International is also working to improve maternal, newborn and child health in Burkina Faso. Follow this link to find out more: http://www.farmradio.org/portfolio/improving-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-in-burkina-faso/

Poor nutrition and hunger are all too common in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas. You might wish to produce a program that covers the basic facts of nutrition and malnutrition, how to recognize and treat symptoms of malnutrition, or how to prevent malnutrition and promote good nutrition. As well as presenting facts, ask female and male farmers what they understand by malnutrition, and try to identify and clarify any misconceptions. You can interview health experts or representatives from NGOs that work on nutrition and health. You could also explore the links between agriculture and nutrition, such as growing vegetables to diversify diets. It is a huge topic, so be creative!

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Notes to broadcasters on sweet potatoes and market trends

The farmer featured in this week’s story made an advantageous discovery when she learned that sweet potatoes, a crop that she had been growing for her own use, were a valuable commodity to crisp vendors. Since she already knew how to grow sweet potato, she was able to take advantage of demand for the crop by devoting more of her fields to it. At the same time, she continues to grow maize and cassava, which keeps her fields diversified and helps protect her food and income security.

Farmers are sometimes presented with the opportunity to grow a new crop which promises to bring in good cash. As happened in this week’s story, it could be a local business seeking raw materials for a product that is growing in popularity. It could be a crop that other local families enjoy, but cannot grow themselves. Or it could be a large company seeking outgrowers. In all such cases, farmers have important decisions to make about whether they should invest their efforts and land in new crops.

Here are some ideas for a radio program related to crop choices and marketing trends:
-Visit a local market and look for farmers and/or vendors selling an agricultural product that is unusual or trendy. Interview the farmer/vendor about her/his choice to grow or sell the crop, and what the market has been like. While you’re there, interview people who are purchasing the product, and ask them why they enjoy it. If the vendor is not the person who grew the crop, ask the vendor how you can get in touch with one or more of the farmers who supplies her/him to talk about their experiences.

-Host a call-in show inviting farmers to share their experiences with trying new crops, particularly in response to market trends. Ask those who found success with a new crop or with expanding an existing crop in response to increased demand what factors they feel led to their success. Ask those who were less successful (for example, farmers who found it very challenging to grow the crop or who did not receive the market price they expected), what advice they have for farmers facing similar decisions.

The Farm Radio International script Sweet potatoes in Uganda looks at how this crop has changed the lives of farmers in eastern Uganda. It includes an interview with the head of a farmers’ group who explains how they choose which sweet potato varieties to grow and which sweet potato products to sell. Find it here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/01/05/sweet-potatoes-in-uganda/

Here are some other Farm Radio International scripts and FRW stories about potatoes and sweet potatoes:
Sawdust prolongs the storage life of potatoes (Package 90, April 2010): http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-90/sawdust-prolongs-the-storage-life-of-potatoes/
Mr. or Mrs. Potato of the Year! (Package 86, December 2008): http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-86/mr-or-mrs-potato-of-the-year/
Research in Rwanda aims for a good harvest of sweet potatoes (Package 86, December 2008): http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-86/research-in-rwanda-aims-for-a-good-harvest-of-sweet-potatoes/
Orange sweet potatoes (Package 86, December 2008): http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-86/orange-sweet-potatoes/
-“Madagascar: Farmers grow potatoes to fill the rice gap” (FRW #232, January 2013): http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/01/21/madagascar-farmers-grow-potatoes-to-fill-the-rice-gap-by-andrisoa-patrick-andriamihaja-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-madagascar/
-“Zimbabwe: Potato farming offers hope to HIV positive farmer” (FRW #227, December 2012): http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/12/03/zimbabwe-potato-farming-offers-hope-to-hiv-positive-farmer-by-nqobani-ndlovu-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-zimbabwe/

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Notes to broadcasters: Natural pesticides

Chemical pesticides can be expensive, difficult to store and use safely, and have unintended side effects. More and more, farmers like the one in this story are starting to use alternatives which can be made cheaply and easily, using ingredients often found at home, like chili and soap.

This PDF training module covers the basics on organic pest and disease management in simple language:

http://www.organic-africa.net/fileadmin/documents-africamanual/training-manual/chapter-04/Africa_Manual_M04.pdf

At this link, you can find some recipes for natural insecticides: http://www.oisat.org/control_methods/plants_in_pest_control/chili.html

Natural pesticides can also be used for livestock, as in this recent news item: “Natural Pesticide Protects Cattle Against Ticks in Africa”: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111011095902.htm

Farm Radio International has produced many scripts on pest control. Browse our resource bank at: http://www.farmradio.org/archived-radio-scripts/?scriptcat=pest

Here is a selection of scripts to get you started:

-“Powder of little pepper protects stored rice” (Package 81, Script 2, August 2007) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-81/powder-of-little-pepper-protects-stored-rice/

-“A local plant prevents pest damage to stored seeds” (Package 81, Script 1, August 2007) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-81/a-local-plant-prevents-pest-damage-to-stored-seeds/
-“Protect children from pesticides” (Package 69, Script 8,December 2003) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-69-a-world-fit-for-children/protect-children-from-pesticides/

Many scripts in Resource Pack 72 (http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-72-integrated-pest-management-strategies-for-farmers/ , September, 2004) are useful in addressing the issue of integrated pest management, including “Biological Pest Control” (Package 72, Script 4, September 2004) http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-72-integrated-pest-management-strategies-for-farmers/reduce-pests-naturally-with-biological-pest-control/

Farm Radio has some short videos on YouTube in which you can watch broadcasters and farmers discuss and present natural pesticides:

-From Malawi, how to use soap, tobacco leaves and ash to control red spider mites in tomatoes and cabbage borers: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ID2UDGuI7a0

-From Malawi, the use of neem leaves: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=myT2u98OkfA&feature=relmfu

What kind of pest control do farmers use in your broadcast area? Find out which pests are common, and how farmers deal with them. Ask farmers if they have heard of these and other non-chemical alternatives. You could even ask a farmer to test them on a small patch of land and report back on his or her findings. Ask the farmer to compare costs, storage, safety and effectiveness.

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Notes to broadcasters: Corruption

Attitudes on corruption are changing. As recently as ten years ago, corruption was only whispered about. Today there are signs of growing intolerance toward corruption and more and more politicians and chief executives are being tried and convicted.

The General Assembly of the United Nations designated December 9 as International Anti-Corruption Day, to raise awareness of corruption. Find out more about the Day through this link: http://www.actagainstcorruption.org/actagainstcorruption/

What can you do about corruption? Find out here: http://www.actagainstcorruption.org/actagainstcorruption/en/about-the-campaign/what-can-you-do.html

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, or UNODC, is charged with leading the fight against corruption and other global crime issues. Visit their website to find out more: http://www.actagainstcorruption.org/actagainstcorruption/fr/about-the-campaign/what-can-you-do.html

Corruption is a serious problem in the water sector. One study estimates that, if African water utilities functioned in an environment free of corruption, their costs would be reduced by almost two thirds. Farm Radio International’s Resource Pack #92 (November 2010) features an issue pack, scripts and stories on water integrity. Access it through this address: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-92-water-integrity/

Farm Radio Weekly published Notes to broadcasters on water integrity in issue #133 (November 2010). It contains a discussion on corruption in the water industry, and the effect on people caused by corruption in general. There are several links to websites of organizations which aim to highlight and tackle the problem, as well as ideas on how to create radio programming on corruption. Revisit these Notes though this link: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/11/01/notes-to-broadcasters-on-water-integrity-2/

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Notes to broadcasters: Human rights and maternal mortality

December 10 is recognised as Human Rights Day. The UN General Assembly proclaimed the Day in 1950, to bring the attention ‘of the peoples of the world’ to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. For more information and resources, follow this link: http://www.un.org/en/events/humanrightsday/. More general information on human rights can be found on the UN Human Rights page: http://www.un.org/en/rights/

In 2013, the Office of the UN High Commission for Human Rights marks 20 years since its establishment. Find out more about its work here: http://at20.ohchr.org/

There is also a history of the development of human rights available on Wikipedia. You can read that at this address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights

The full text of the Universal Declaration of Human rights can be found on the UN website, via this link: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/

Farm Radio Weekly produced Notes to broadcasters on human rights stories in issue #178 (October 2011). It provides resources to support journalists who wish to write human rights or gender-based stories. It also has links to several FRW stories on these subjects. Please revisit those Notes here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/10/31/notes-to-broadcasters-on-human-rights-stories/

The story about Edna Adan mentions the subject of women who die as a result of childbirth, or maternal mortality. There is plenty of information about this issue on the UN World Health Organization website. Go to this address to access statistics and analysis: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/. More resources are available through this link: http://www.who.int/topics/maternal_health/en/

Africa has the technology to save the lives of women. Africans have the powerful spirit and the will to demand their rights. More than this, there are thousands of heroes and heroines of maternal health across the continent. Find out more about the African Union’s Campaign for accelerated reduction of maternal mortality, or CARMMA, through this link: http://www.carmma.org/; and through the African Union’s website: http://pages.au.int/carmma

What is the situation in your listening area? Do women have access to trained medical professionals, or are they reliant on more traditional help, from family members and older, female members of the community? How far are the nearest ante- and post-natal clinics? Is reliable and safe transport available? Are these issues talked about amongst you listeners? What do men think are the important issues, compared to the opinions of women? Start a discussion on the airwaves with pre-recorded opinion, in-studio experts and a phone-in for those listening: you might be surprised by the responses that you get.

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Notes to broadcasters: HIV and AIDS

December 1 is the United Nations World AIDS Day. For more information and materials related to the Day, please go to the UNAIDS website through this link: http://www.unaids.org/en/. Further information is available through the World Health Organization website: http://www.who.int/hiv/en/

To read the original article on which one of this week’s stories is based, Why fish farming can help people living with HIV in Liberia, please visit the Guardian’s website: http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/sep/17/fish-farming-help-liberia-hiv-positive

More information about HIV can be found though the MedicinePlus page, which is a service of the US Library of Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000602.htm. The relationship between religion and HIV/AIDS is complicated, and often fraught with controversy. There is a Wikipedia page dedicated to how some religions deal with the subject: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_and_HIV/AIDS

The UN produces some useful factsheets on HIV and AIDS, for example:

http://www.unfpa.org/hiv/docs/factsheet_transmission.pdf (on preventing mother to child transmission)

This site provides lots of information on HIV and AIDS in Africa: http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-africa.htm.

In a previous Resource section, FRW highlighted a manual for reporting on HIV and AIDS in Africa: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2010/05/10/telling-the-hiv-story-a-practical-manual-on-hiv-prevention/.

Here you will find a link to a radio drama for young people on HIV prevention, available in English and French: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/10/05/can-tru-love-withstand-the-test-%E2%80%93-a-radio-drama-on-hiv-prevention/.

Farm Radio Weekly has published these stories related to HIV:

HIV-positive widow raises pigs to improve income and health: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/07/22/uganda-hiv-positive-widow-raises-pigs-to-improve-income-and-health-by-geoffrey-ojok-for-farm-radio-weekly/

Local food and its usefulness for HIV positive people:   http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/01/26/africa-local-food-essential-for-hiv-positive-people-un-integrated-regional-information-networks/

HIV positive women grow mushrooms: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/03/02/2-uganda-mulago-positive-women%E2%80%99s-network-discovers-potential-of-mushroom-cultivation-written-by-joshua-kyalimpa-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-kampala-uganda/

Farm Radio International has produced a number of scripts on HIV and AIDS. Topics covered include gender, youth, prevention, and good nutrition. You can start by reading through FRRP #73, HIV/AIDS and Food Security, available here: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-73-hivaids-and-food-security. There are many more scripts available through this link: http://www.farmradio.org/archived-radio-scripts/?scriptcat=health

In spite of vigorous campaigns to contain the epidemic, HIV continues to spread. FRRP #93 contains the script AIDS support group gives positive people a new lease on life! which can be found here: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-93-healthy-communities/aids-support-group-gives-positive-people-a-new-lease-on-life/

Quiz show: Questions and Answers About HIV/AIDS (FRRP #62, script #3, January 2002) may prove to be an interesting way to get basic facts about HIV and AIDS to your listeners. Read it here: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-62-hivaids/quiz-show-questions-and-answers-about-hivaids/

There are Notes to broadcasters on HIV and AIDS and nutrition (FRW #169, August 2011) available here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2011/08/22/notes-to-broadcasters-on-hiv-and-aids-and-nutrition/ )

World AIDS Day may inspire broadcasters to produce programs or hold activities to mark the day. We would love to hear about your events, and will share them in Farm Radio Weekly. Meanwhile, the following section provides advice and ideas on creating programs that deal with HIV and AIDS, and important messages that your programs can pass on:

Program Planning
Involve people living with HIV and AIDS in your broadcasts. Encourage them to tell their stories on the radio. Withhold their identity if they prefer to remain anonymous.

Remember that media itself can stigmatize people living with HIV and AIDS, and try to avoid this pitfall. For example, radio has a responsibility to notify the public that HIV and AIDS is not a punishment for bad behaviour!

Work with health professionals when preparing programs about the health aspects of HIV and AIDS. You need reliable sources in order to disseminate useful broadcasts and to avoid spreading misinformation.

Work with NGOs to amplify their work and yours. In particular, identify and work with traditional theatre and other groups that use effective ways to reach local people. Dramatizations are most effective when they are followed by a discussion or a call-in show.

Get support from upper management. Explain to supervisors that radio programming can save people’s lives, that there has never been a challenge like HIV before, and that no country can afford to ignore it.

Be bold in taking risks and pushing limits. There is a natural shyness when it comes to talking about sexual relations. But it is impossible to deal effectively with HIV and AIDS without discussing sex openly and frankly. You might take a little heat, but remember that what you are doing is saving lives. In too many places, a conspiracy of silence has allowed HIV to infect and kill millions, and impact every aspect of human life.

Involve youth. Young people are one of the hardest groups to reach. No one can communicate with young people better than young people themselves. Give them basic radio production skills and encourage them to develop their own programming. Their programs will be more interesting and attractive to young people.

Involve adults when you develop programs for young people Form an advisory committee of parents and community leaders, including religious leaders. This will reduce the chances of strong opposition to the programs.

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Notes to broadcasters: International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women

“All forms of violence against women must stop – from the use of rape as a weapon of war to the use of violence by a husband to terrorize his wife within her own home.” UN Deputy Secretary-General Asha-Rose Migiro

Since 1981, women’s activists have marked November 25 as a day against violence. This date marks the brutal assassination in 1960 of the three Mirabal sisters, political activists in the Dominican Republic. The Day was officially recognized by the UN in 1999.

For more information and resources on the Day, please visit the UN website: http://www.un.org/en/events/endviolenceday/

Say NO: UNiTE to end violence against women invites you to join the UNiTE campaign and “Orange the World” during 16 Days of Activism against Gender Violence from November 25 to December 10. For more information, contact Anna Alaszewski at the UNiTE campaign global secretariat (anna.alaszewski@unwomen.org) or visit their website at: http://saynotoviolence.org/join-say-no/orange-world-16-days

Farm Radio Weekly published Notes to broadcasters on breast ironing and female genital mutilation in issue #268. You can access it through this link: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/11/18/notes-to-broadcasters-breast-ironing-and-female-genital-mutilation/. Other related FRW Notes include Notes to broadcasters on domestic abuse in Africa (FRW #208, July 2012 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/07/16/notes-to-broadcasters-on-domestic-abuse-in-africa/), and Notes to broadcasters on women farmers affected by sexual violence (FRW #57, March 2009 http://weekly.farmradio.org/2009/03/02/notes-to-broadcasters-on-women-farmers-affected-by-sexual-violence/).

Sadly, there are far too many articles on the internet on gender-based violence for us to bring them all to you. Here is a sample:

The story on which one of this week’s stories was based, The uphill task to eliminate violence against women in Mozambique and Southern Africa, can be read in full here: http://reliefweb.int/report/mozambique/uphill-task-eliminate-violence-against-women-mozambique-and-southern-africa#sthash.4ryxK7sb.dpuf

More information is available on Sylvie Messo, mentioned in the story from Congo-Brazzaville. Read the blog through this address: http://syfia.over-blog.com/article-pointe-noire-une-journaliste-maman-des-filles-meres-53307594.html

The stories which make up this week’s News in brief can be found through the following links: Fighting gender-based violence in Sierra Leone (http://www.irinnews.org/report/99070/fighting-gender-based-violence-in-sierra-leone); A look behind the statistics of South Africa’s rape epidemic (http://www.irinnews.org/report/99039/a-look-behind-the-statistics-of-south-africa-s-rape-epidemic); Kenyan rape victims seek compensation (http://iwpr.net/report-news/kenyan-rape-victims-seek-compensation) and; Better protection for victims of gender based violence (http://allafrica.com/stories/201311041170.html). Related to the article from Tanzania is Safe shelters to help gender violence victims, which can be read here: http://allafrica.com/stories/201310160667.html

The elimination of violence against women: “Time has run out for complacency or excuses” is a recent article from Think Africa Press. There are links to several more stories at the bottom of the web page: http://thinkafricapress.com/gender/international-day-elimination-violence-against-women-time-has-run-out-complacency-or-excuses

Many women are victims of violence and rape during wars and civil insurrection, and after natural disasters. Boko Haram, taking to hills, seize slave “brides” tells the story of one woman’s experience. You can read it here: http://www.trust.org/item/20131117092554-68m4x/. Getting protection of women right in emergencies discusses how best to ensure that women and girls are better cared for after conflict and natural disasters. It is available through this link: http://www.irinnews.org/report/99118/getting-protection-of-women-right-in-emergencies

A recent, high-profile case of a woman being raped and the authorities failing in their duty to bring the culprits to justice focuses on “Liz,” a 16-year-old Kenyan girl. She was violently assaulted and left for dead, but her attackers were “punished” by being forced to cut the grass around the local police station. There are several internet stories on this. These include: Brave Busia girl battles as her rapists go scot free (http://www.nation.co.ke/lifestyle/DN2/When-rapists-go-scot-free/-/957860/2022572/-/skd9s8z/-/index.html); Police wrap up probe into girl’s gang rape (http://www.nation.co.ke/news/Police-wrap-up-probe-into-girls-gang-rape/-/1056/2035702/-/format/xhtml/-/4rdyo/-/index.html) and; Miscarriage of justice in brutal gang rape shines spotlight on Kenyan police (http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/features/2013/10/18/feature-02). There is also an opinion piece from the Canadian Globe and Mail newspaper on a different case, After Kenya’s landmark rape decision, all eyes on the police, which is available here: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/after-kenyas-landmark-rape-decision-all-eyes-fall-on-the-police/article13545136/

In spite of growing international awareness of the problem and the declared willingness of States to fight gender-based violence, women and girls continue to suffer disproportionately from violence, both in peacetime and during armed conflict, at the hands of family members, intimate partners, community members and State agents. The violence is often of a sexual nature. Instead of taking responsibility, States frequently ignore or deny violence against women, or justify the abuse with a reference to “culture.” Violence against women, from the World Organisation Against Torture, contains 383 articles on torture and other human rights violations. You can access them through this address: http://www.omct.org/violence-against-women/

There are more resources available on the internet. UNiTE, the organizers of the 16 Days of Activism against Gender Violence campaign (featured in this week’s Resource section), has produced this resource bank: http://endviolence.un.org/resources.shtml. There is also a Virtual knowledge centre to end violence against women and girls, published by UN Women, which you can access here: http://www.endvawnow.org/. The resource is available in English, French and Spanish.

Communication and training materials were developed by the C-Change project to help prevent and mitigate school-related, gender-based violence. You can find them here: http://www.c-hubonline.org/resources/preventing-school-related-gender-based-violence-katanga-province-drc. All materials may be downloaded free.

Get Moving! is a series of training materials designed for organizations working on violence against women, or women’s rights work in general. It aims to provide opportunities for intensive self-reflection and self-discovery in order to help staff feel more passionate about and committed to their work. You can download the material needed to run a course here: http://raisingvoices.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/downloads/Innovation/Creating_Methodologies/Get_Moving/FG.pdf (facilitators’ handbook) and http://raisingvoices.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/downloads/Innovation/Creating_Methodologies/Get_Moving/PG.pdf (participants’ workbook)

Do you need to involve the men in your area? The Men to Men Strategy Toolkit was published by African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET). It shares information, tools, activities, and skill-building ideas and methods to help organizations and individuals better understand the dynamics of working with men to address gender-based violence. Get more information and download the toolkit (in English only) through this link: http://www.comminit.com/africa/content/men-men-strategy-toolkit-working-men-combat-gender-based-violence

Finally, the COMMUNICATIONS X-CHANGE is an online library of materials contributed by organizations and individuals around the world who are working to end violence against women and children. A wide assortment of international content includes flyers, posters, videos, brochures, educational materials and more, all of which you can view and download free of charge. Visit the library here: http://xchange.futureswithoutviolence.org/library/

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Notes to broadcasters: Vegetable gardening

For more information on vegetable farming, visit this Wikipedia page, and follow the links from there: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable_farming

The website of the World Vegetable Center has a wealth of information on growing vegetables: http://avrdc.org/

Farm Radio Weekly has produced Notes to broadcasters on traditional vegetables (FRW #22, May 2008), which you might find interesting background reading. You can access them through this link: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2008/05/26/notes-to-broadcasters-on-traditional-vegetables/

There are many stories about market gardeners and their triumphs and challenges in the Farm Radio Weekly archive. These include Farmers adapt to drought by taking up market gardening (FRW #231, January 2013), which can be read here: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2013/01/14/burkina-faso-farmers-adapt-to-drought-by-taking-up-market-gardening-by-nourou-dhine-salouka-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-burkina-faso/; Market gardeners lose their land to city growth (FRW #210, October 2012), available through this link: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/10/09/benin-market-gardeners-lose-their-land-to-city-growth-by-mikaila-issa-for-farm-radio-weekly-in-benin/; and the story of a farmers’ association in Zanzibar (Farmers’ group profits by expanding vegetable production, FRW #187, January 2012), which can be revisited via this address: http://weekly.farmradio.org/2012/01/30/tanzania-farmers%E2%80%99-group-profits-by-expanding-vegetable-production-allafrica/

Two scripts of note are African traditional vegetables back on the table, available in Farm Radio Resource Package 95: Researching and producing farmer focused programs (http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-95-researching-and-producing-farmer-focused-programs/african-traditional-vegetables-back-on-the-table/ December 2012), and from FRRP #90: Farmer Innovation (April 2010), Sack farming: Unlimited vegetable harvest! This script talks about a technique that can be practised anywhere in the world, as it does not require farmland or rainwater. Read more here: http://www.farmradio.org/radio-resource-packs/package-90/sack-farming-unlimited-vegetable-harvest/

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is encouraging schools to set up gardens to help young children appreciate the importance of growing food. FAO has a website with practical support for teachers, parents, volunteers and secondary school students who would like to establish or improve a school garden. It gives step-by-step guidance on how to set up and operate a school garden. You can access it here: http://www.fao.org/schoolgarden/index_more_en.htm

Farm Radio International recently initiated a project called FarmQuest, a reality radio series that will follow six young farmers as they compete for the prize of becoming Mali’s “Best New Farmer.” Read more about it on the FRI website: http://www.farmradio.org/portfolio/farmquest-promoting-farming-as-a-sustainable-employment-option-for-youth-in-mali/. Why not organize a competition to see which school in your listening area can create the best school garden? You could seek sponsorship for the competition from seed companies and farmer organizations.

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